Charles was the first son of Victor Charles de Büren (1707-1773) and Catherine Fischer (1712-1787). At the age of sixteen Charles started his military career by serving in a Swiss regiment in Holland. He would serve in Holland until 1771 when he returned to Switzerland with his Dutch wife. When his father died in 1773 he became Baron of Vaumarcus and Lord of Provence. He became a member of the Bern Grand Council in 1775 and Governor of Nidau in 1782. At his wife's request in 1772 Charles had built the newest part of the castle of Vaumarcus known as the “Palais”.
Charles de Büren (1731-1787), painted in 1779 by Johann Joseph Kauffmann
Cornélie Jacobée van Assendelft (1733-1799), painted in 1760 by Guillaume de Spinny
In 1757 Charles married Cornélie Jacobée van Assendelft, daughter of Jacob van Assendelft (1692-1752), Mayor of the Hague and Adrienne Christine van Hoey (b.1697).
From his wife he had five children:
1. Cornélie Jacobée (1758-1835) ∞ Beat Emanuel de Tscharner
2. Charles Philippe (1759-1795) ∞ Charlotte Elisabeth de Büren
3. Jean Elisée (1762-1814) ∞ Catherine Charlotte de Thellung
4. Louis (1766-1766)
5. Jacques Louis (1771-1838) ∞ Marie Henriette de Tavel